Freud Civilization and Its Discontents Humankind strives for happinessbut according to Sigmund Freud, the creation of civilization as a means to further this goal has instead generated unhappiness. In his book Civilization and its Discontents, Freud asserts the happiness of the individual is often sublimated to the need for civilization to establish law and order. People have an instinctual desire for absolute freedom which includes a need to be sexually promiscuous as well as to be violent.
Only by clarifying the nature of the superego and the sense of guilt—which he later declared to be the maker of civilized humanity—could he begin to explore the clash of that sense of guilt with the aggressive instinct derived from the self-destructive death drive that he had first confronted in Jenseits des Lustprinzips, Beyond the Pleasure Principle, Using the concepts of the superego, the sense of guilt, and the aggressive instinct, Freud formulated the main theme of Civilization and Its Discontents: The small book is divided into eight short chapters, each packed with complex ideas and analyses.
Although Freud admits he has not discovered this feeling within himself, he uses the concept to discuss the nursing infant who initially does not distinguish between his or her own ego and the external world. Because of internal pain and response from the external world to that pain, the infant begins the process of differentiating between what is internal what belongs to the ego and what is external what emanates from the external world.
In so doing, he or she arrives at the influence of the reality principle, which dominates further development, and the constructed ego, which will maintain sharp lines of demarcation toward the outside.
The mature ego-feeling as separate and defined is, in fact, a shrunken residue of the all-embracing primary ego-feeling of infancy. To further elucidate this concept, he uses one of his most famous analogies: As in twenty-first century Rome, underneath which there are ancient cities, so in mental life everything is preserved and, given the appropriate circumstances, can be brought back to life.
He traces the religious attitude in the adult back to the feeling of infantile helplessness. For the adult, likewise, a belief in God is the attempt to pacify the need for protection from the threatening dangers of the external world.
This throwback to infancy for consolation, Freud concludes, reveals that religion is patently infantile and foreign to reality. Yet Freud concedes that life is hard, and that humans are faced with too many pains, disappointments, and impossible tasks. Humans therefore take palliative measures by drawing on the substitutive satisfactions offered by such deflections as art or intoxicating substances.
Freud defines happiness as the absence of pain in combination with strong feelings of pleasure. In the quest for happiness, the purpose of life is the pleasure The entire section is 1, words.
Unlock This Study Guide Now Start your hour free trial to unlock this page Civilization and Its Discontents study guide and get instant access to the following:The Mayan Civilization - It was a fantastic place to live,however, all of the achievements, like better education, that made the civilization so also had a part in its downfall.
Excerpt from Essay: Freud Civilization and Its Discontents Humankind strives for happiness, but according to Sigmund Freud, the creation of civilization as a means to further this goal has instead generated benjaminpohle.com his book Civilization and its Discontents, Freud asserts the happiness of the individual is often sublimated to the need for civilization to establish law and order.
Author’s Bio. translated by Gabrielle Shorr. Sublimation, Sublimierung, the word is in Freud, taken from his discourse on the art of his benjaminpohle.com Kant, the sublime was distinguished from beauty by the tension that persisted in it while subsiding in beauty.
Moderation / Criticism / Exposition / Exposés David Aaronovitch. Catholics try, rather unconvincingly, to show how conferring sainthood is different in principle to the pagan apotheosis (the process that made Claudius, for instance, into a God), but the distinction doesn't quite wash.
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Sigmund Freud, (born May 6, , Freiberg, Moravia, Austrian Empire [now Příbor, Czech Republic]—died September 23, , London, England), Austrian neurologist, founder of psychoanalysis.. Freud may justly be called the most influential intellectual legislator of his age.
His creation of psychoanalysis was at once a theory of the human psyche, a therapy for the relief of its .