Norplant consists of six small flexible capsules made of Silastic tubing and filled with a synthetic progesterone, levonorgestrel.
Levonorgestrel-releasing implant prevents pregnancy through multiple methods: A small amount of the hormone progestin is released through the capsules continuously, more during the first year and a half, but then at a level similar to most contraceptive pills afterward.
Like all hormonal contraception, levonorgestrel-releasing implant does not protect against sexually transmitted infections. In addition, no continual contraceptive supplies pills, condoms, etc.
Contraindications[ edit ] Levonorgestrel-releasing implant should not be used in women with liver diseasebreast canceror blood clots. Women who believe they may already be pregnant or those with vaginal bleeding should first see a physician.
However, since it does not contain estrogen like some birth control pills, older women, women who smoke, and women with high blood pressure are not restricted from using the system.
This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. March Learn how and when to remove this template message After three months of using, women will need to schedule a follow-up appointment to monitor blood pressure and discuss any concerns.
Side effects may include irregular menstrual periods for the first approximately three months, including periods lasting longer than normal, bleeding or spotting between periods, heavy bleeding, or going with no period for the mentioned period of time.
Ovarian cysts may also occur, but usually do not require treatment, although they can cause pain even if benign. Insertion[ edit ] Levonorgestrel-releasing implant is implanted under the skin in the upper arm of a woman, by creating a small incision and inserting the capsules in a fanlike shape.
Insertion usually takes 15 minutes and the capsules can sometimes be seen under the skin, although usually they look like small veins. They can also be felt under the skin.
Once inserted, the contraceptive works within 24 hours and lasts up to five years. It is normally removed when the five-year period is over, or if: Pregnancy is desired Different birth control is preferred Complications arise Normally removal is not complicated; removal difficulties have been reported with a frequency of 6.
History[ edit ] It was developed by Sheldon J. Segal and Horacio Croxatto at the Population Council beginning inwith the first clinical trial in Chile in Norplant was withdrawn from the UK market in Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
doi: / HISTORY. The intersectoral research and development process that brought Norplant onto the world market began in the mids, with articulation by the Population Council of the general concept and objectives of implant technologies.
the introduction of Norplant would be. Sales of Norplant decreased from a high of units per day to units per day when the lawsuits were initiated. By mid, the implant was no longer considered by a majority of women because of fears of the product.
On June 27, , the Population Research Institute (PRI) petitioned the FDA to cease the distribution Norplant. All variables were organized into five main categories, and data were collected in the following areas: sociodemographic characteristics, menstrual history, reproductive history, knowledge about various family planning methods, factors influencing the decision to take Norplant and reasons for early discontinuation.
Levonorgestrel-releasing implant, sold under the brand name Jadelle among others, is a device made up of a two rods of levonorgestrel used for birth control. It is one of the most effective forms of birth control with a one-year failure rate around %. An Introduction to the Book of Jonah Related Media.
Since Jesus Christ is the center of God’s salvation history, all prophecy somehow relates to Him. II. AUTHOR: May have been Jonah (hnwy), or someone who knew him and later wrote down the events (one of the sons of the prophets).
It will delve into the history of Norplant, a long-acting contraceptive, that state lawmakers utilized as an eugenic tool by connecting it to welfare programs. Finally, it will bring us to the present day’s continued criminalization of Black reproduction and offer a look forward.