Describe the periodic nature and properties of atoms and molecules

Publications Definition of Terms The definitions found here pertain to the field of science involved with solution and colloid chemistry. Similar terms from other fields of science, such as nuclear science, are not applicable to solutions and colloids.

Describe the periodic nature and properties of atoms and molecules

Examples of ionic compounds described: Chemists can use the theory of structure and bonding to explain the physical and chemical properties of materials of widely varying composition e.

Detailed analysis of structures by a variety of techniques shows how atoms can be arranged in all sorts of ways summarised below with links to more detailed notes. Chemical bonding theory covalent, ionic, metallic explains how atoms are held together in these different types of structure.

This theoretical chemical bonding knowledge, backed up with experimental evidence, helps scientists to design and engineer new materials with desirable properties for specific uses.

The properties of these new materials offer new technological applications and uses in a range of different industrial and domestic use of technologies from electronic devices to new structural materials and a lot more besides. There are three types of strong chemical bonds: In ionic bonding the particles atoms or a group of atoms form oppositely charged ions.

In covalent bonding the particles are atoms usually both non-metals share pairs of electrons to form the bond. In metallic bonding the metal atoms actually positive ions of the lattice share negative delocalised electrons to bind themselves together.

Ionic bonding occurs in compounds formed from metals combined with non-metals. Covalent bonding occurs in most non-metallic elements and in compounds of non-metals.

Metallic bonding occurs in metallic elements and alloys. You should be able to explain chemical bonding in terms of electrostatic forces and the transfer or sharing of electrons.

When different elements different types of atom react and combine to form a compound new substance chemical bonds must be formed to keep the atoms together.

Once these atoms are joined together its usually difficult to separate them. The atoms can join together by sharing electrons in what is known as a covalent bond.

Or, they can transfer or accept electrons to form positive and negative ions and form an ionic bond. Metals form another kind of bond in sharing electrons called a metallic bond.

The types of are briefly explained below with links to even more detailed notes with lots of examples. Part 1 begins by explaining why atoms bond together in the first place and then the concepts broadened out to explain the different types of bonding.

Describe the periodic nature and properties of atoms and molecules

Why do atoms bond together? Some atoms are very reluctant to combine with other atoms and exist in the air around us as single atoms. These are the Noble Gases and have very stable electron arrangements e. The first three are shown in the diagrams below and explains why Noble Gases are so reluctant to form compounds with other elements.

The combining power of an atom is sometimes referred to as its valency and its value is linked to the number of outer electrons of the original uncombined atom see examples later. Each type of chemical bonding is VERY briefly described below, with links to more detailed notes.

In chemical bonding we are dealing with the formation of ions and molecules, so how big are these particles? Atoms and small molecules like water are around a million times smaller than the width of a human hair!

Most molecules and ions you will come across in your chemistry studies are times smaller than the cells in your body.Tutorial on atomic structure, Part 2 of 6 (particles/waves) Atoms are far too small to see directly, even with the most powerful optical microscopes.

The Evolution of the Periodic System. From its origins some years ago, the periodic table has become a vital tool for modern chemists.

Atom, smallest unit into which matter can be divided without the release of electrically charged also is the smallest unit of matter that has the characteristic properties of a chemical such, the atom is the basic building block of chemistry.. Most of the atom is empty space.

Chemistry Chemistry is the Science of Matter; The branch of the natural sciences dealing with the Composition of Substances and their Properties and Reactions.

Biology. Glossary of Chemistry Terms (wiki) Chemistry Tools - Science Equipment - Microscopes Khan Chemistry (videos) - ACS Reactions (youtube) Chemistry Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for scientists. The five linked pages introduce to the concept of a chemical bond and why atoms bond together, types of chemical bonds and which electron arrangements are particularly stable leading to stable chemical bonds.

Through the use of dot and cross electronic diagrams is described and there are detailed notes on ionic bonding i.e. the mutual . As we move past the first eighteen elements, you can start to learn about transition elements in the fourth period (row) of the periodic transition metals have electron configurations that are a little different from the first eighteen.

Make sure you understand the basics of electron orbitals before you move on to this row.

19 TAC Chapter , Subchapter C