The Overstory encompasses all realities—historical, sensual, virtual—making this masterpiece astonishingly ambitious.
Buddhism in India The Edicts of King Asoka King Asoka, the third monarch of the Indian Mauryan dynasty, has come to be regarded as one of the most exemplary rulers in world history. The British historian H. Then in the nineteenth century there came to light a large number of edicts, in India, Nepal, Pakistan and Afghanistan.
These edicts, inscribed on rocks and pillars, proclaim Asoka's reforms and policies and promulgate his advice to his subjects. The present rendering of these edicts, based on earlier translations, offers us insights into a powerful and capable ruler's attempt to establish an empire on the foundation of righteousness, a reign which makes the moral and spiritual welfare of his subjects its primary concern.
The Australian bhikkhu Ven. Dhammika, the compiler of the present work, is the spiritual director of the Buddha Dhamma Mandala Society in Singapore. However, many parts of the edicts are far from clear in meaning and the numerous translations of them differ widely.
Therefore, I have also consulted the translations of C. Bhandarkar and in parts favored their interpretations. Any credit this small book deserves is due entirely to the labors and learning of these scholars. Dhamma is good, but what constitutes Dhamma?
It includes little evil, much good, kindness, generosity, truthfulness and purity. KING ASOKA With the rediscovery and translation of Indian literature by European scholars in the 19th century, it was not just the religion and philosophy of Buddhism that came to light, but also its many legendary histories and biographies.
Amongst this class of literature, one name that came to be noticed was that of Asoka, a good king who was supposed to have ruled India in the distant past.
Stories about this king, similar in outline but differing greatly in details, were found in the Divyavadana, the Asokavadana, the Mahavamsa and several other works. They told of an exceptionally cruel and ruthless prince who had many of his brothers killed in order to seize the throne, who was dramatically converted to Buddhism and who ruled wisely and justly for the rest of his life.
None of these stories were taken seriously -- after all many pre-modern cultures had legends about "too good to be true" kings who had ruled righteously in the past and who, people hoped, would rule again soon. Most of these legends had their origins more in popular longing to be rid of the despotic and uncaring kings than in any historical fact.
And the numerous stories about Asoka were assumed to be the same.
But inJames Prinsep succeeded in deciphering an ancient inscription on a large stone pillar in Delhi. Several other pillars and rocks with similar inscriptions had been known for some time and had attracted the curiosity of scholars. Prinsep's inscription proved to be a series of edicts issued by a king calling himself "Beloved-of-the-Gods, King Piyadasi.
Gradually, it dawned on scholars that the King Piyadasi of the edicts might be the King Asoka so often praised in Buddhist legends. However, it was not untilwhen another edict actually mentioning the name Asoka was discovered, that the identification was confirmed. Having been forgotten for nearly years, one of the greatest men in history became known to the world once again.
Asoka's edicts are mainly concerned with the reforms he instituted and the moral principles he recommended in his attempt to create a just and humane society.
In ''Guns, Germs, and Steel,'' an ambitious, highly important book, Jared Diamond asks: How did Pizarro come to be at Cajamarca capturing Atahualpa, instead of Atahualpa in Madrid capturing King Charles I? GUNS, GERMS AND STEEL The Fates of Human Societies also A Short History of Everybody for the Last 13, Years Jared Diamond We may or may not know who Scott Fuller is Diamond first entered the saturated pop-science book market back in with . Hence Guns, Germs, and Steel discusses the differences among continental environments responsible for Eurasia’s head start: especially the differences among plant and animal species suitable for domestication, and among continental areas, isolations, axes, and internal geographic barriers.
As such, they give us little information about his life, the details of which have to be culled from other sources. Although the exact dates of Asoka's life are a matter of dispute among scholars, he was born in about B. The loss of life caused by battle, reprisals, deportations and the turmoil that always exists in the aftermath of war so horrified Asoka that it brought about a complete change in his personality.
It seems that Asoka had been calling himself a Buddhist for at least two years prior to the Kalinga war, but his commitment to Buddhism was only lukewarm and perhaps had a political motive behind it. But after the war Asoka dedicated the rest of his life trying to apply Buddhist principles to the administration of his vast empire.
He had a crucial part to play in helping Buddhism to spread both throughout India and abroad, and probably built the first major Buddhist monuments. Asoka died in B. Asoka's edicts are to be found scattered in more than thirty places throughout India, Nepal, Pakistan and Afghanistan.
Most of them are written in Brahmi script from which all Indian scripts and many of those used in Southeast Asia later developed. The language used in the edicts found in the eastern part of the sub-continent is a type of Magadhi, probably the official language of Asoka's court.
The language used in the edicts found in the western part of India is closer to Sanskrit although one bilingual edict in Afghanistan is written in Aramaic and Greek.
Asoka's edicts, which comprise the earliest decipherable corpus of written documents from India, have survived throughout the centuries because they are written on rocks and stone pillars. These pillars in particular are testimony to the technological and artistic genius of ancient Indian civilization.
Originally, there must have been many of them, although only ten with inscriptions still survive. Averaging between forty and fifty feet in height, and weighing up to fifty tons each, all the pillars were quarried at Chunar, just south of Varanasi and dragged, sometimes hundreds of miles, to where they were erected.The Documentary, Guns Germs and Steel is an informational and argumentative documentary about Jared Diamond's theory on why there is a big difference between those who have advanced technology and those who live normally focusing more on gathering food instead of improving technology.
The world's inequalities began because some people had the means to make a meal of bread and cheese, while others did not.
Tim Radford reviews Guns, Germs and Steel by . The book Guns, Germs and Steel by Jared Diamond is a well, but not thoroughly, researched work that attempts to concisely compile and analyze the myriad of variables responsible for 4/5().
Guns, Germs, and Steel is crammed with facts and densely written. It doesn’t make for light reading. But if you have any interest in understanding how the world came to .
Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies (also titled Guns, Germs and Steel: A short history of everybody for the last 13, years) is a transdisciplinary non-fiction book by Jared Diamond, professor of geography and physiology at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA).
In , Guns, Germs, and Steel won the Pulitzer Prize for general nonfiction and the Aventis. Hence Guns, Germs, and Steel discusses the differences among continental environments responsible for Eurasia’s head start: especially the differences among plant and animal species suitable for domestication, and among continental areas, isolations, axes, and internal geographic barriers.