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Several different systems of citation are in use in various academic communities such as footnotes and endnotesbut APA Style uses a kind of parenthetical referencing called the author—date system. Basic In-Text Citation Style As the name author—date system implies, APA Style in-text citations include the author and date, either both inside parentheses or with the author names in running text and the date in parentheses.
Here are two examples: Smith and Wexwood reported that after the intervention, children increased in the number of books read per week. Multiple In-Text Citations When multiple studies support what you have to say, you can include multiple citations inside the same set of parentheses.
In running text, you can address studies in whatever order you wish. Smith and Wexwood reported an increase in the number of books read, whereas Gibson reported a decrease.
Albright, Wayne, and Fortinbras found no significant results.
However, sometimes one or both of these elements are truly missing. The table below shows what substitutions to make for in-text citations if that happens.
What information do you have?The Purdue University Online Writing Lab serves writers from around the world and the Purdue University Writing Lab helps writers on Purdue's campus. Citing multiple works by the same author.
If you cite more than one work by a particular author, include a shortened title for the particular work from which you are quoting to distinguish it. Writing References - Oxford System This is a guide on how to write references for various documents Oxford style intended for footnotes with complete bibliographic information (see Citing references Oxford) and reference lists.
As the name author–date system implies, APA Style in-text citations include the author and date, either both inside parentheses or with the author names in running text and the date in parentheses.
Here are two examples: After the intervention, children increased in the number of books read per. Write a Book With Help From Best-Selling Author Brian Tracy. Researchers include brief parenthetical citations in their writing to acknowledge references to other people’s work.
Generally, APA parenthetical citations include the last name of the author and year of publication. Parenthetical citations with multiple authors: Works with two authors.
Example: Include both names, separated by an. Two or More Works by the Same Author in the Same Year. If you are using more than one reference by the same author (or the same group of authors listed in the same order) published in the same year, organize them in the reference list alphabetically by the title of the article or chapter.
Then assign letter suffixes to the year.