Only by editing shots together could longer narrative forms be achieved. The edit points occur between the scenes, in order to link them together.
Griffith made over movies. Over that time, he, along with his fellow Hollywood directors, developed continuity editing. By the time Griffith released his hugely influential and hugely racist masterwork A Birth of A Nation inthe rules of continuity editing had more or less been worked out.
This form of storytelling was so successful, and profitable, that it has been used for just about every Hollywood movie that has come out since. Yet just as these rules were being codified, filmmakers, mostly European, looked for other ways to tell a story.
German directors like F. Murnau and Robert Wiene experimented with cinematic depictions of the subconscious. But it was the filmmakers in the newly formed Soviet Union that really contributed a new way of thinking about film — Soviet Montage.
You can watch a video about it above. Lev Kuleshova young teacher there, started to take apart the movie and reorder the images.
He discovered that the meaning of a scene was radically changed depending on the order of the shots.
This led Kuleshov to try an experiment: You can watch it below. Invariably, audiences praised the actor for his subtlety of performance. Of course, there was no performance. The connection between the two images was made entirely within the head of the viewer. This realization would forever be commemorated in film schools everywhere as the Kuleshov Effect.
Using the French word for assemble, Kuleshov called this "montage.
Another student, Sergei Eisensteinproposed a far more dynamic, and revolutionary, form of montage. In it, Czarist soldiers massacre a group of protestors, mostly women and children.
There is no way to come away from this movie and not feel like the Czarists are anything but murderous villains. Nevermind that the movie is wildly inaccurate, historically speaking. Shots of a grieving mother juxtaposed with images of bayonet wielding troops result in a surprisingly visceral feeling of injustice.
In his writings, Eisenstein outlined the varying types of montage — five kinds in all. The most important, in his eyes, was intellectual montage — a method of placing images together in a way to evoke intellectual concepts.
He was inspired by how Japanese and Chinese can create abstract ideas from concrete pictograms. You can see an example of intellectual montage in the end of the Odessa steps sequence when a stone lion seemingly rises to his feet. Eisenstein decided to push this idea to the limit with his follow up, October.
The movie is deeply strange to watch now. In one famous sequenceEisenstein compares White Russian general Alexander Kerensky to a peacock and to a cheap Napoleon figurine.
And below is another, slightly funnier, certainly more contemporary, example of intellectual montage. Great Classics, Indies, Noir, Westerns, etc.Eisenstein adapted this theory from the Proletkult to the cinema in his essay The Montage of Attractions.
Attractions are a molecular unit of a theatrical whole that is independent of narrative and setting. In his essay The Montage of Film Attractions, Eisenstein makes explicit linkage of film and theater through a common audience. Tim Gozanski Comm.
– class Aesthetics Essay Sergei Eisenstein’s Theory of Montage Sergei Eisenstein’s theory of montage suggests that a greater visceral impact can be achieved from a collision of opposing images rather than their linkage, as Pudovkin suggests.
Here is our collection of short films and TV show reviews; most of these are embedded and viewable on this site. SHORTS. 01/26/ – An episode from a series called “Lasagna Cat” based on the comic strip “Garfield”; here, the grumpy cat has too much coffee, which has a psychedelic effect on his visage.
05/16/ – Another “Lasagna . Sergei Eisenstein is a father of the montage of attractions. In he explain in his essay that: An attraction (in our diagnosis of theatre) is any aggressive moment in theatre, i.e.
any element of it that subjects the audience to emotional or psychological influence, verified by experience and mathematically calculated to produce specific emotional shocks in the spectator in their proper order within the whole.
SERGEI EISENSTEIN b. Riga, Russian Empire (now Latvia), 23 January , d. 11 February Sergei Eisenstein is a wholly unique figure in cinema history.
There are a great many things to admire and enjoy in Csilla Toldy’s third chapbook of poems, Vertical Montage, which was recently launched by Lapwing Publications as part of the Belfast Film Festival Dedicated to the Russian film director Sergei Eisenstein, the book contains poems written loosely around the themes of film and .