Suicide of Cato the Younger. This popular image of Stoicism has developed over the past four or five centuries as readers have encountered descriptions of ancient Stoic philosophy by Classical authors such as Cicero, Seneca and Plutarch.
If someone is unkind, it is because they are unaware of their own universal reason, which leads to the conclusion of unkindness. The solution to evil and unhappiness then is the practice of Stoic philosophy: The Stoics accepted that suicide was permissible for the wise person in circumstances that might prevent them from living a virtuous life.
Eudaimonia In philosophical terms, things that are indifferent are outside the application of moral law —that is without tendency to either promote or obstruct moral ends. Actions neither required nor forbidden by the moral law, or that do not affect moralityare called morally indifferent.
As a result of this dichotomya large class of objects were left unassigned and thus regarded as indifferent. Eventually three sub-classes of "things indifferent" developed: The principle of adiaphora was also common to the Cynics. Philipp Melanchthon revived the doctrine of things indifferent during the Renaissance.
Stoic philosophical and spiritual practices included logicSocratic dialogue and self-dialoguecontemplation of deathtraining attention to remain in the present moment similar to some forms of Buddhist meditationand daily reflection on everyday problems and possible solutions.
Philosophy for a Stoic is an active process of constant practice and self-reminder.
In his MeditationsMarcus Aurelius defines several such practices. For example, in Book II. Say to yourself in the early morning: I shall meet today ungrateful, violent, treacherous, envious, uncharitable men.
All of the ignorance of real good and ill I can neither be harmed by any of them, for no man will involve me in wrong, nor can I be angry with my kinsman or hate him; for we have come into the world to work together Prior to Aurelius, Epictetus in his Discoursesdistinguished between three types of act: Three such consolations by Seneca have survived.
Social philosophy[ edit ] A distinctive feature of Stoicism is its cosmopolitanism: All people are manifestations of the one universal spirit and should live in brotherly love and readily help one another according to the Stoics.
Instead, they advocated the brotherhood of humanity and the natural equality of all human beings. Stoicism became the most influential school of the Greco-Roman world, and produced a number of remarkable writers and personalities, such as Cato the Younger and Epictetus.
In particular, they were noted for their urging of clemency toward slaves. Seneca exhorted, "Kindly remember that he whom you call your slave sprang from the same stock, is smiled upon by the same skies, and on equal terms with yourself breathes, lives, and dies.
He claimed the author of the Fourth Gospel declared Christ to be the Logos, which "had long been one of the leading terms of Stoicism, chosen originally for the purpose of explaining how deity came into relation with the universe".
Again in the doctrine of the Trinity, the ecclesiastical conception of Father, Word, and Spirit finds its germ in the different Stoic names of the Divine Unity. In his lettersPaul reflected heavily from his knowledge of Stoic philosophy, using Stoic terms and metaphors to assist his new Gentile converts in their understanding of Christianity.
AmbroseMarcus Minucius Felixand Tertullian. Examples include the terms "logos", " virtue ", " Spirit ", and " conscience ". Both Stoicism and Christianity assert an inner freedom in the face of the external world, a belief in human kinship with Nature or God, a sense of the innate depravity—or "persistent evil"—of humankind,  and the futility and temporary nature of worldly possessions and attachments.
Stoic writings such as Meditations by Marcus Aurelius have been highly regarded by many Christians throughout the centuries. Roman Stoics taught that sex is just within marriage, for unitive and procreative purposes only.
Modern usage[ edit ] The word "stoic" commonly refers to someone indifferent to pain, pleasure, grief, or joy.Summary of the Discourses of Epictetus February 21, Stoicism John Messerly Epictetus (c. 55 – CE) was born as a slave in the Roman Empire, but obtained his freedom as a teenager.
Three of Plato's dialogues, Apology, Phaedo and Crito which epitomize the Socratic question-and-answer style turned philosophy, with the inevitable conclusion of Socrates' death. Like those of Socrates and Christ, the Golden Sayings were transcribed by the disciples of the great Stoic/5(20).
Zeno was the founder of the Stoic school of philosophy, which he taught in Athens from about BC. Based on the moral ideas of the Cynics, Stoicism laid great emphasis on goodness and peace of mind gained from living a life of Virtue in accordance with benjaminpohle.com: Stoicism.
Galen wrote a number of works dealing with Stoic philosophy - a commentary on Chrysippus’ First Syllogistic and a book on Epictetus among others - all of which are unfortunately lost.
However, among his surviving works there are two texts that are especially important for the study of Stoicism. Stoicism, Epictetus and Religion Agreed. Remember, reason is a tool that connects axioms with conclusions. People have all sorts of different beliefs that mark themselves as so fundamental that they are outside the scope of reason.
but there comes a point where you can no longer call yourself a Stoic. When reading philosophy I don't.
The four cardinal virtues of Stoic philosophy is a classification derived from the teachings of Plato (Republic IV. – Philosophy for a Stoic is not just a set of beliefs or ethical claims, Essential Works of Stoicism, Bantam Books Harvard University Press Epictetus Discourses Books 1 and 2, Loeb Classical Library Nr.