The traditional view of women in society was to stay at home, clean, raise childrenand to help with the family farm.
English Heritage oversaw the conservation and regeneration of derelict 18th-century houses that infill the ruins of the West Front, Bury St Edmunds Abbey, which the Ministry of Works had once proposed stripping away.
Fisher Hart Architectural and Interiors Photography Building conservation is distinctly different from the physical processes of repair and adaptation. It is an attitude of mind, a philosophical approach, that seeks first to understand what people value about a historic building or place beyond its practical utility and then to use that understanding to ensure that any work undertaken does as little harm as possible to the characteristics that hold or express those values.
Conservation now needs to be explained in such terms, rather than by technical directives that is to say, to be operative rather than prescriptivebecause of the diversity of the buildings and places that people have come to value and wish to hand on to future generations.
Practising conservation involves judgement guided by professional ethics and public policy. The intellectual arguments for conservation originally put forward by antiquaries and critics, often prompted by the threatened destruction of valued buildings, have gradually developed into professional statements of ethics and good practice.
The concept has evolved over a long time, but the language used to articulate it is changing.
As conservation becomes a more complex and public activity, approaches to the conservation of buildings are seen as being closely linked not only to the conservation of objects but also to sustaining cultural values in the historic environment as a whole. Throughout Europe, the cultural significance of historic buildings and places is now generally recognised as a public interest in property, regardless of who owns it, justifying the use of law, public policy and public investment to protect that interest.
There are differences, however, about which buildings and areas are valued sufficiently to warrant legal protection, both quantitatively the number of buildings and areas and qualitatively the values ascribed to them. Although the values of some places have long been recognised and tend to become more clearly established over time, attitudes to others often of more recent date may change, sometimes quite rapidly, within an evolving culture.
Conservation thus requires an awareness of the mutability of heritage values. Policies and good practice about what should be conserved and how that should be done therefore represent a snapshot of contemporary understanding and approach, rather than a set of unchangeable truths.
Its emphasis on the primary importance of sustaining inherited fabric and its opposition to restoration are still highly influential in British conservation.
A huge expansion in the type, age range and number of buildings and areas recognised as having cultural heritage value during the 20th century has made their conservation a much more complex activity, which now needs to take into account public as well as professional opinion.
Buildings of the 16th and 17th centuries, mostly still in everyday use, were included in the remit of the royal commissions established from to record them; the terminal date was soon extended to Statutory protection, effectively introduced in  by the Town and Country Planning Act and Town and Country Planning Scotland Act, included Georgian buildings from the outset, soon adding a small number of Victorian buildings.
While remaining highly selective of more recent buildings, inter-war and finally post-war buildings have been added to the lists. Once considered controversial, many post-war listings are now cultural icons: The incremental shift could not have been achieved without public support.
European Architectural Heritage Yeara Council of Europe Initiative, was a catalyst for thinking about how historic buildings, valued not only for their recollection of the past but also, and perhaps principally, for their contribution to the present and future, could be sustained in use.
International statements of best professional practice, particularly The Venice Charterwere still concerned primarily with monuments whose exceptional significance was evident at national, and often international, level and where ongoing use was desirable, but not essential, to survival.
In the UK, pragmatic guidance became annexed to successive planning policy documents and supplemented by advice from national heritage agencies.
The heritage values of places were seen as often both multiple and mutable. Heritage practitioners therefore needed to become advocates and enablers as well as conservators, particularly in relation to the values attached to places by the communities that identify with them.
The idea is a simple one: This document attempted to domesticate the concepts of conservation planning and a values-based system of assessment, promoting an integrated approach to managing any and all valued elements of the historic environment.
The scope of designation and recognition of historic buildings and areas has widened to include those significant for their design or associations, rather than simply their age, and which are sustained by remaining in use.
This wider concept of heritage demands discrimination and a sense of proportion, to inform attempts to identify and balance conflicting public interests the essential concern of public policy in a methodical and transparent way.
In England, a draft heritage protection bill was published inbut not taken forward, leaving integrated policy Planning Policy Statement 5: Planning for the Historic Environment, informed by the ideas in the Conservation Principles but disconnected from the details and terminology of underlying legislation.
This is intended to leave good practice to be established through standards and guidance produced by professional bodies and organisations.
More weight might then be attached to the revision, recently announced, of the British Standard BS Guide to the principles of the conservation of historic buildings BS The Welsh Assembly Government has published its own Conservation Principles for the Sustainable Management of the Historic Environment in Walesadapting the English version, and has announced its intention of bringing forward a Heritage Wales Bill.
Scotland has high level policies applicable to all heritage assets, including reference to conservation planning, but grounded in existing legislation, to which some amendments have been made.
They are grouped under four broad headings, not intended as a checklist, but as a prompt to thought: It is above all a primary source of information about how jewellery and small metalwork were made.
Heritage assets are the valued components of the historic environment.This public attention combined with the heroic service of women in industry during World War I resulted in the passage of the 19th amendment to the Constitution of the United States, in The 19th Amendment provides men and women with equal voting rights.
This closing of the gap between (present) cultural value and (past) cultural heritage was perhaps an inevitable consequence of the emphasis from the outset (in the selection criteria for listing) on architectural rather than historic interest and thus on design value as well as fabric.
WHITLEY AWARDS FOR WILDLIFE CONSERVATION: Two Indians Dr. Ananda Kumar and Dr. Pramod Patil have won the prestigious whitely awards for their contribution to wildlife conservation. The awards were presented in a ceremony held in London. A total of 7 Conservationists were awarded the Whitley Awards for their efforts to protect wildlife in Developing countries.
The Blog of Scott Aaronson If you take just one piece of information from this blog: Quantum computers would not solve hard search problems instantaneously by simply trying all the possible solutions at once. Insights Weekly Essay Challenges – Week “The past’ is a permanent dimension of human consciousness and values Insights Weekly Essay Challenges – Week A good life is one inspired by love and guided by knowledge.
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