The Roman Catholics in the world outnumber all other Christians combined.
South Africa From the time of the first white settlements in South Africa, the Protestant emphasis on home Bible reading ensured that basic literacy would be achieved in the family.
Natal had gone furthest in affirming government responsibility for education and setting up the necessary administrative machinery, but, by and large, provision for schooling remained voluntary and piecemeal until the beginning of the 20th century.
The South African War —; also called the Boer War suspended educational development entirely and confirmed the resolve of each white South African group to protect its own cultural prerogatives. When the Union of South Africa was created init was a bilingual state, and thus both English-speaking and Afrikaans-speaking schools were established for white Europeans.
Furthermore, a political tightness and separateness increased among the Afrikaners after the war and strengthened their tendency to exclude nonwhites from the cultural and political life of the dominant society.
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The trend toward separate schools for linguistic and racial groups became a rigid practice in most of South Africa after union.
Church mission schools attempted to replace the preliterate tribal education of native Africans in the South African colonies. Established fromthey were dedicated to converting the indigenous peoples to Christianity and generally inculcating an attitude of service and subservience to whites.
These schools spread from toand colonial governments made occasional grants to them from Some mission schools included a mixture of races but, by and large, segregation was established by custom. Although some exemplary schools followed rather liberal social and curricular policies, most schools held to narrowly religious content in their curricula.
The mission schools were virtually brought into the state system through government subsidies and through provincial supervision, inspection, and control of teachingcurriculum, and examination standards. By the time the union was formed, the new provinces had each established school systems, structured mainly for European children but including provisions for other groups.
Specific arrangements varied, but basically the systems were headed by a department of education under a director and controlled through an inspectorate. Three of the provinces had school boards that localized the department administration.
Compulsory-attendance regulations were being effected for European children, while separate school developments were under way for other groups. The language of instruction had been established provincially, with both Afrikaans and English in use.
The South Africa Act of left the control of primary and secondary education with the provinces, while reserving higher education to the union government.
The Union Department of Education, Arts, and Science became the central educational authority and expanded its responsibilities by accepting control of special sectors such as vocational, technicaland artistic education. The passing of the tribal system was noted and efforts toward interracial cooperation complimented.
It was obvious, however, that little of value to Africans was being done in the European-model schools and that noteworthy educational efforts were associated with special institutions, such as Lovedale School and University College of Fort Hare in the Cape.
That legislation included the Bantu Education Act of The National Education Policy Act of and a subsequent Amendment Act inalong with the Constitution Act ofalso reflected apartheid policy. The provinces incorporated national policy into their own legislation and administration.
Fundamentally, the system of apartheid rested on three assumptions: Implementation of apartheid policy led to a near-total separation of educational facilities for white, black, Coloured mixed-raceand Indian Asian populations, with resulting divergence of opportunity between the extremes of black and white education.Susan H.
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One of the biggest challenges facing leaders today is the need to position and enable organizations and people for adaptability in the face of increasingly dynamic and demanding environments. The Psychological Contract is an increasingly relevant aspect of workplace relationships and wider human behaviour.
Descriptions and definitions of the Psychological Contract first emerged in the s, notably in the work of organizational and behavioural theorists Chris Argyris and Edgar Schein.
Quote HSE " Success in managing major Hazards is not measured by the Occupational Health and Safety Statistics but by measuring the performance of critical systems used to control risks to ensure they are operating as intended..
This statement is a very powerful statement and i want to stand on the premise that it should form the basis of assessing and formulating regulation regimes. ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE – HOFSTEDE MODEL AND SCHEIN MODEL This essay/assignment is a solution paper on Organizational Culture.
It reviews the Hofstede Model and Schein Model as well as tries to understand the the dynamics which influences the occupational cultures. Roman Catholicism: Roman Catholicism, Christian church that has been the decisive spiritual force in the history of Western civilization.